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DVD

 

DVD
Media Type Optical Disc
Capacity 4.7 GB (single-sided, single-layer – common)
8.5–8.7 GB (single-sided, double-layer)
9.4 GB (double-sided, single-layer)
17.08 GB (double-sided, double-layer – rare)
Standard DVD Forum's DVD Books and DVD+RW Alliance specifications
Read mechanism 650 nm laser, 10.5 Mbit/s (1×)
Write mechanism 10.5 Mbit/s (1×)
Weight 16g


DVD-Video is consumer video format and used to store digital video on DVD discs. It is currently dominant in Asia, North America, Europe, and Australia.


Discs using the DVD-Video specification require a DVD drive and an H.262/MPEG-2 Part 2 decoder. Commercial DVD movies are encoded using a combination of H.262/MPEG-2 Part 2 compressed video and audio of varying formats. Typically, the data rate for DVD movies ranges from 3 Mbit/s to 9.5 Mbit/s, and the bit rate is usually adaptive.


It was first available for retail around 1997. The DVD-Video specification was created by DVD Forum, which is not publicly available, because every subscriber must sign a non-disclosure agreement. Certain information in the DVD Book is proprietary and confidential.

 

Specifications

DVD specifications created and updated by the DVD Forum are published as so-called DVD Books (e.g. DVD-ROM Book, DVD-Audio Book, DVD-Video Book, DVD-R Book, DVD-RW Book, DVD-RAM Book, DVD-AR Book, DVD-VR Book, etc.).
Some specifications for mechanical, physical and optical characteristics of DVD optical discs can be downloaded as freely available standards from the ISO website. Also, the DVD+RW Alliance publishes competing DVD specifications such as DVD+R, DVD+R DL, DVD+RW or DVD+RW DL. These DVD formats are also ISO standards.
Some of DVD specifications (e.g. for DVD-Video) are not publicly available and can be obtained only from the DVD Format/Logo Licensing Corporation for a fee of US $5000.[13][14] Every subscriber must sign a non-disclosure agreement as certain information in the DVD Book is proprietary and confidential.


 

Identification (MID)

The DVD is made of a spiral groove read or written starting at the center. The form of the groove encodes unalterable identification data known as Media Identification Code (MID). The MID contains data such as the manufacturer and model, byte capacity, allowed data rates (also known as speed), etc.


 

Technology

DVD uses 650 nm wavelength laser diode light as opposed to 780 nm for CD. This permits a smaller pit to be etched on the media surface compared to CDs (0.74 µm for DVD versus 1.5 µm for CD), allowing in part for DVD's increased storage capacity.
In comparison, Blu-ray Disc, the successor to the DVD format, uses a wavelength of 405 nm, and one dual-layer disc has a 50 GB storage capacity.
Writing speeds for DVD were 1×, that is, 1,385 kB/s (1,353 KiB/s), in the first drives and media models. More recent models, at 18× or 20×, have 18 or 20 times that speed. Note that for CD drives, 1× means 153.6 kB/s (150 KiB/s), about one-ninth as swift.


 

Logical Fomrats

  • DVD recordable and rewritable
  • DVD recordables are now also used for consumer audio and video recording.
    Three formats were developed:
    DVD-R/RW
    DVD+R/RW (plus)
    DVD-RAM
    DVD-R is available in two formats, General (650 nm) and Authoring (635 nm), where Authoring discs may be recorded with CSS encrypted video content but General discs may not.

  • Dual-layer recording
  • Dual-layer recording (sometimes also known as double-layer recording) allows DVD-R and DVD+R discs to store significantly more data—up to 8.5 gigabytes per disc, compared with 4.7 gigabytes for single-layer discs. Along with this, DVD-DLs have slower write speeds as compared to ordinary DVDs. When played, a slight transition can sometimes be seen in the playback when the player changes layers. DVD-R DL was developed for the DVD Forum by Pioneer Corporation; DVD+R DL was developed for the DVD+RW Alliance by Philips and Mitsubishi Kagaku Media (MKM).


  • DVD Video
  • DVD-Video is a standard for storing and distributing video/audio content on DVD media. The format went on sale in Japan in 1996, in the United States in 1997, in Europe in 1998 and in Australia in 1999. DVD-Video became the dominant form of home video distribution in Japan when it first went on sale in 1996, but did not become the dominant form of home video distribution in the United States until June 15, 2003, when weekly DVD-Video in the United States rentals began outnumbering weekly VHS cassette rentals, reflecting the rapid adoption rate of the technology in the U.S. marketplace. Currently, DVD-Video is the dominant form of home video distribution worldwide, although in Japan it was surpassed by Blu-ray Disc when Blu-ray first went on sale in Japan on March 31, 2006.


  • DVD Audio
  • DVD-Audio is a format for delivering high fidelity audio content on a DVD. It offers many channel configuration options (from mono to 5.1 surround sound) at various sampling frequencies (up to 24-bits/192 kHz versus CDDA's 16-bits/44.1 kHz). Compared with the CD format, the much higher-capacity DVD format enables the inclusion of considerably more music (with respect to total running time and quantity of songs) and/or far higher audio quality (reflected by higher sampling rates and greater sample resolution, and/or additional channels for spatial sound reproduction). This DVD-Audio technique was first used by the brothers Lagkind.


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Requirements

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Requires OS X 10.5+ and Blu-ray Drive

Requires Windows XP or later and Blu-ray Drive

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